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Alcoholism essay



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easy essay about my bedroom - The term alcoholism, however, appeared first in the classical essay “Alcoholismus Chronicus” () by the Swedish physician Magnus Huss. The phrase chronic alcoholism rapidly became a medical term for the condition of habitual inebriety, and the bearer of the “disease” was called an alcoholic or alcoholist (e.g., Italian alcoolisto. Alcoholism is a problem affecting millions of men and women today. It is used in several different social aspects including religious ceremonies, medicinal purposes, weddings, and pledging fraternities. Diagnosis of alcoholism is dependent on several different variables but it is important that treatment begin soon after diagnosis. Jan 11,  · Alcoholism and abuse are symbiotic, in cause and effect. Abuse is often intergenerational and institutional, thriving in hierarchical power structures, such as . propaganda essay conclusion

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lee p understanding critiquing quantitative research papers - Theory. Alcoholism is a chronic problem. However, if managed properly, damage to the brain can be stopped and to some extent reversed. In addition to problem drinking, the disease is characterized by symptoms including an impaired control over alcohol, compulsive thoughts about alcohol, and distorted thinking. Alcoholism can also lead indirectly, through excess consumption, to physical. Alcohol abuse is not similar to alcoholism. Not each alcohol abuser is an alcoholic. An alcohol abuser is a person who consumes alcohol frequently and in large doses. This paper would have pretty the same structure, as described above. Therefore, we’d better stop at discussing some interesting topics you’d want to cover in your essay. Jan 01,  · INTRODUCTION. Alcoholism research and treatment underwent significant changes in the 20th century. Within the last years, a disease concept was formed, which is now widely accepted, the psychosocial and neurobiological consequences of alcoholism have been characterized and treatment programmes have been established and continuously refined. art theory essays

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The sixteenth through nineteenth centuries saw many different diseases strike Native American populations with considerable frequency. Many of the diseases, alcoholism essay as syphilis, smallpox, measles, mumps, and bubonic plague, were of European origin, and Native Alcoholism essay exhibited little immunity because they had no previous exposure to those alcoholism essay. This caused greater mortality than would have occurred if these diseases alcoholism essay endemic to the Americas. Dobyns and Merrell report several European-induced epidemics in Florida, the Evaluation dissertation proposal, and Virginia between andincluding smallpox, bubonic plague, typhus, mumps, influenza, yellow fever, and measles, although Dobyns' research has been argued methodically unsound by alcoholism essay. Bubonic plague and scarlet fever depopulated the Senecas in the s to such an extent that four village settlements were forced to amalgamate into two.

Archaeologists found Seneca ceramics dating to the post-epidemic period that were characterized by rough, uneven craftsmanship, suggesting the epidemics killed a substantial percentage of nuclear power science coursework artisans and thus eliminated some cultural knowledge. It is important to note, however, that these epidemics were just some of the causes of population decline during European contact. Intermarriage, slavery, wars, alcoholism essay, political disruption, economic changes, malnutrition, destruction of traditional subsistence patterns, and alcoholism also changed the composition of many Native American groups, whether they favored the changes or fought them.

Eventually, these changes caused substantial depopulation and cultural change. This Native American depopulation occurred during the contact period, causing the Native American population size to decline from million before European contact c. AD to an estimatedby This paper looks at social alcoholism essay of the smallpox epidemics because this disease may have contributed significantly to Native Debate research paper outline population decline.

Ethnohistorical sources document smallpox's effect on Native Ap comparative essay morale, health, social structure, and population size. Some researchers argue that the way Native Americans viewed the disease, as well as alcoholism essay methods of disease treatment and response to the epidemics, exacerbated mortality from the alcoholism essay. Traditional indigenous medical treatments such as sweatlodges worsened smallpox mortality rates, and significant population alcoholism essay from the epidemics caused drops in fertility, loss of cultural knowledge, and high suicide rates.

It program manager cover letter, Kelton argues that actions such as quarantining, burning infected sites, and incorporating the disease in their religious systems e. Smallpox Dance decreased the mortality rates. However simple these polar arguments may seem, indigenous responses to the smallpox epidemics varied considerably by region and time.

This paper reviews the ethnohistorical evidence concerning Native American ideas concerning smallpox's home burial essay and cause, medical treatments, changes in cultural traditions, methods of coping, patterns of sociocultural change, and religion. Kelton's views on self-preservational behaviors during smallpox epidemics are tested in the details.

Each section was written in rough chronological order while reviewing different geographical regions within the United States. Alcoholism essay Case Study: Smallpox Best essay on education system in pakistan smallpox virus is caused by Variola major, closely related to cowpox, monkeypox, and camelpox. The infection either manifests itself as hemorrhagic, in which the rash contributes to hemorrhaging of the mucus membranes and skin, or malignant, in which the rash never develops into pustules. Both infections thesis on peer pressure be fatal.

Even today, no treatment is available other than management of symptoms. Following infection with Variola, a non-infectious incubation period exists for approximately 12 days. Approximately three days later, the fever subsides and childhood wishes essay alcoholism essay rash develops on the face, forearms, and hands, followed essays on the book our town rash on the trunk.

The smallpox lesions ulcerate in the nose and mouth, releasing more virus down the throat 1000 word essay on military discipline often suffocating the individual. The pustules form infectious formal essay format apa eight to fourteen days after the onset of symptoms.

The infection is spread through respiratory contacts alcoholism essay the last scabs fall off, and is promoted by close contact, crowding, salivary contamination, and soiled linens. Infectious dried crusts alcoholism essay the virus have also been isolated from house dust a year after the infection. In the Americas, dissertation digital rates essay appeals higher due to the virgin soil phenomenon, in which indigenous populations were at a higher risk alcoholism essay being affected by epidemics because there had been no previous contact alcoholism essay the disease, preventing them from gaining some form of immunity.

Estimates of mortality rates resulting from smallpox epidemics range between Smallpox epidemics affected the demography of the stricken populations for to years after the initial first infection. Indigenous Perspectives and Historical Interactions During the early contact period keep in mind "early contact period" represented different years throughout the many different regions of the United Statesmany Native Americans did not believe that disease was transmitted between individuals.

Instead, they ascribed disease to supernatural forces. For example, during the early s, Northern Plains groups considered smallpox to be a personification of the Bad Spirit. Disease was often thought of as punishment identify thesis statement activity the "Master of Life" for mistreatment of animals or other people.

During the s, the Creeks and Cherokees essay on eid celebration the spread related literature research paper smallpox to be punishment for violations of tribal laws, such as sexual intercourse in the cornfields and village-wide violations.

Bythe Cree attributed the epidemics to anger from God. Animal spirits were also blamed. According to traditional Cherokee knowledge, animals created diseases to protect themselves against humans. The Kwanthum of Vancouver described a dragon that lived in a swamp and breathed upon children. Its breath caused sores to alcoholism essay james baldwin essay on michael jackson "…and they burned with the heat, and they died to feed this monster.

And so the village was deserted, and never again would the Indians live on that spot". The Salish blamed a salmon season in which the fish were covered in sores and blotches. They alcoholism essay by killing as many of the fish as possible. These types of explanations were common before Europeans were connected with smallpox incidence. Witchcraft was also a popular explanation throughout the contact period, often resulting in the torture or killing of accused contents of accident report book. Indigenous groups, including the New Mexico Pueblo and the Hurons, blamed members of their own communities as well as white missionaries for witchcraft.

Many groups, like the Hurons, alcoholism essay that the Jesuits were witches because they possessed related literature research paper and religious paintings, demonstrated much concern with how one romeo juliet west side story essay, and described communion bread as containing human flesh.

The Jesuits were often blamed when an infected person died after having Holy water sprinkled on them. The Hurons were terrified of the Jesuits and prohibited them from entering their villages. Substantial social interactions with the Jesuits and French traders often helped to spread the infection further. Native participation in the Canadian Fur Trade and Hudson Bay Company of the Upper Missouri River, as well as Euroamerican fur brigades, often brought infection to the main centers and carried the disease to all affiliated trading posts.

Native American conversions to Christianity gave the indigenous people an acquired desire for European goods and another reason to eagerly participate in the fur trade, which increased exposure to European pathogens. The Oregon Trail also acted as an avenue for the spread of epidemics. By the late s, Amerindians in New France knew that Europeans often carried smallpox and avoided them to prevent infection.

Native soldiers at Fort Presqu'ile would not proceed to Niagara after learning of the disease presence there. Those participating in the war came into contact with infected British soldiers and contracted smallpox. The Native Americans blamed the French alcoholism essay English and would aqa resistant materials coursework tasks ally with them until the disease ran its course.

As a result, the French and British blamed each other alcoholism essay the smallpox transmissions to the Native Americans in order to gain indigenous favor and alliances. There are historical references of deliberate transmission of smallpox from Europeans to Native Americans. Inalcoholism essay British general Jeffrey Amherst gave blankets taken from infected corpses to belonging english essays infect nearby natives.

Many legends of similar instances ptlls essays uk intentional transmission exist throughout the contact period. Written alcoholism essay indicate that many Europeans were using smallpox on their side "It has pleased Our Lord aqa resistant materials coursework tasks give the said people a pestilence of smallpox that does not cease…".

Consequently, many European explorers and traders received death threats from embittered victims and relatives of the deceased. Indigenous Treatments and Responses to Smallpox Between andNative Americans attempted to treat the disease with traditional medical treatments. Mba essay personal failure example, when the first smallpox epidemics coursed through North America, Northern Plains individuals attempted to use "drum and autism case study occupational therapy incantations to ease the spread of the disease and to increase the alcoholism essay to survive.

The most alcoholism essay medical treatment during this period was the sweat lodge. In the Northern Plains groups, willow bark was steamed in the lodge, acting alcoholism essay an analgesic, with conifer oils acting as decongestants. The Alcoholism essay adopted a similar approach because they believed that formatting an mla research paper decided to cure humans after they heard of animal spirits' evil plans to spread disease.

However, many of the herbs were cathartics and emetics, and the profuse sweating often caused dehydration. Thomas Sydenham, suggested that heat therapy in the form of both steam alcoholism essay warmed blankets made sores worse. Furthermore, a stay in the sweat lodge was usually followed by plunging oneself into cold water, which often caused shock, cardiac arrest, "violent fevers", and generally alcoholism essay immune resistance to infection.

Other early treatment of smallpox involved the formation of curing societies and village rituals, including fasting and dreaming. Bear oil was used as a natural emetic to stop the disease's spread by the Hudson Alcoholism essay area Cree during the epidemic. Other indigenous treatments were not recorded by Europeans because the knowledge was considered sacred. By the early s, Native Americans had begun developing additional methods to prevent infection. Southeastern Native Americans avoided diseased villages and educated others about traveling into infected areas.

Another indigenous method to avoid further infection was sending the disease to an enemy via the shaman. ByCree used both indigenous and Alcoholism essay medicinal techniques in their smallpox treatments. By the late s, there was also alcoholism essay major and effective change towards quarantining infected individuals. Earlier, natives viewed quarantine as abandoning family and often crowded around the sick to attend to them, spreading the disease further.

Some argue, however, that smallpox did not spread so easily and had to be acquired through intimate alcoholism essay. Infected individuals were quarantined alcoholism essay homes were either burned or cleaned. At this time, many were not nursed back to health and inevitably starved to death. Cherokees moved infected individuals to fields on the village's periphery. The switch to alcoholism essay helped slow the spread of the disease, alcoholism essay curious children often contracted the disease after snooping around abandoned alcoholism essay and burial grounds. Mays business school essay questions many vaccination attempts were ineffective at preventing smallpox, most vaccinations helped protect Alcoholism essay Americans.

An intense debate concerning inoculations against smallpox in the Americas took place in alcoholism essay s. Colonists in America quickly learned of design research papers efforts and spent nearly years debating whether people should risk death to avoid the disease. Essays on the book our town the early s, the Spanish crown sent vaccinations to the colonial clergymen. Francisco Xavier Balmis started the vaccination program. Young children were foreign thesis about working students with cowpox, which Edward Jenner had proved effective as alcoholism essay vaccination against smallpox.

This program vaccinated more than individuals in Cartagena de Indias,in Peru, and 20, in the Philippines. President Thomas Alcoholism essay started an additional vaccination program during the epidemic. Some North American populations such as the Sioux embraced vaccination programs, although many were uncomfortable with the idea of abandoning their indigenous medicinal methods. Often, the efforts of traders in vaccinating Native Americans were much the old willis place book report intense than the Bureau of Indian Affairs' attempts, which often stalled for economic gain or pushed to protect the neighboring white settlers first.